Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS)

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Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS)

Published 10 February 2023 | Updated 15 March 2024

  • Sharp, C.A.T. et al. (2024) The mobility of the brachycephalic canine nostril in relation to the degree of nostril stenosis. The Veterinary Journal, 304.
  • Niinikoski, I. et al. (2024) Evaluation of risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing in dogsJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 38 (2), pp. 11351145.
  • Ladlow, J. et al (2018) Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome.  Veterinary Record, 182 (13), pp. 375-378.
  • Krainer, D. and Dupré, G. (2022) Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 52 (3), pp. 749-780.
  • Packer, R.M.A. et al. (2015) Impact of facial conformation on canine health: brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. PLoS ONE, 10 (10), p. e0137496
  • Gallman, J. et al (2023) Evaluation of infrared thermography and 6-minute walk tests to assess airflow limitation, impaired thermoregulation, and exercise intolerance in dogs with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. PLoS ONE, 18 (3), e0283807.
  • Liu, N.C. et al. (2017) Conformational risk factors of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in pugs, French bulldogs, and bulldogs. PLoS ONE, 12 (8), p. e0181928.
  • Oechtering, G.U. et al. (2016) A novel approach to brachycephalic syndrome. 1. Evaluation of anatomical intranasal airway obstruction. Veterinary Surgery, 45 (2), pp. 165-172.
  • O’Neill, D.G. et al. (2015) Epidemiological associations between brachycephaly and upper respiratory tract disorders in dogs attending veterinary practices in England. Canine Genetics and Epidemiology, 2 (1), no. 10.
  • Haimel, G. and Dupré, G. (2015) Brachycephalic airway syndrome: a comparative study between pugs and French bulldogs. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 56 (12), pp. 714-719.
  • Jones, S.A. and Kennedy, S.C. (2023) Comparison of mortality of brachycephalic dogs undergoing partial staphylectomy using conventional incisional, carbon dioxide laser, or bipolar vessel sealing device. Veterinary Surgery,
  • Miller, A.K., Regier, P.J. and Colee, J.C. (2023) Complications and outcome following staphylectomy and folded flap palatoplasty in dogs with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. Veterinary Surgery,
  • Kampf, S. et al. (2023) Differences in selected blood parameters between brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic dogs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 10.
  • Williams, P.J., De Gennaro, C. and Demetriou, J.L. (2023) Evaluation of the addition of adrenaline in a bilateral maxillary nerve block to reduce hemorrhage in dogs undergoing sharp staphylectomy for brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. A prospective, randomized study. Veterinary Surgery,

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Grading and severity

Published 12 February 2023

  • Ladlow, J. (2021) Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome: guide to the respiratory functional grading scheme. In Practice, 43 (10), pp. 548-555.
  • Lilja-Maula, L. et al (2017) Comparison of submaximal exercise test results and severity of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in English bulldogs. The Veterinary Journal, 219, pp. 22-26.
  • Riggs, J. et al. (2019) Validation of exercise testing and laryngeal auscultation for grading brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in pugs, French bulldogs, and English bulldogs by using whole‐body barometric plethysmography. Veterinary Surgery, 48 (4), pp. 488-496.
  • Liu, N.C. et al. (2016) Whole‐body barometric plethysmography characterizes upper airway obstruction in 3 brachycephalic breeds of dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 30 (3), pp. 853-865.
  • Liu, N.C. (2015) Characterisation of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in French bulldogs using whole-body barometric plethysmography. PLoS ONE, 10 (6), p. e0130741.
Outcomes of surgery

Published 10 February 2023

  • Seneviratne, M., Kaye, B.M. and Ter Haar, G. (2020) Prognostic indicators of short‐term outcome in dogs undergoing surgery for brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. Veterinary Record, 187 (10), p. 403.
  • Ree, J.J. et al. ( 2016) Factors associated with major complications in the short-term postoperative period in dogs undergoing surgery for brachycephalic airway syndrome. The Canadian Veterinary Journal, 57 (9), pp. 976-980.
  • Tarricone, J. et al. (2019) Development and validation of a brachycephalic risk (BRisk) score to predict the risk of complications in dogs presenting for surgical treatment of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. Veterinary Surgery, 48 (7), pp. 1253-1261.
  • Torrez, C.V. and Hunt, G.B. (2006) Results of surgical correction of abnormalities associated with brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome in dogs in Australia. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 47 (3), pp.150-154.
  • Liu, N.C. et al. (2017) Outcomes and prognostic factors of surgical treatments for brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in 3 breeds. Veterinary Surgery, 46 (2), pp. 271-280.
  • Mercurio, A. (2011) Complications of upper airway surgery in companion animals. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 41 (5), pp.969-980.
  • Hughes, J.R. et al. (2018) Complications following laryngeal sacculectomy in brachycephalic dogs. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 59 (1), pp. 16-21.
  • Cantatore, M. et al. (2012) Medium term endoscopic assessment of the surgical outcome following laryngeal saccule resection in brachycephalic dogs. Veterinary Record, 170 (20), p. 518.
  • Lindsay, B. et al. (2020) Brachycephalic airway syndrome: management of post‐operative respiratory complications in 248 dogs. Australian Veterinary Journal, 98 (5), pp. 173-180.

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