The health and welfare of brachycephalic dogs

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The health and welfare of brachycephalic dogs

Published 10 February 2023 | Updated 15 May 2024

  • Åsbjer, E., Hedhammar, Å. and Engdahl, K. (2024) Awareness, experiences, and opinions by owners, breeders, show judges, and veterinarians on canine Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS). Canine Medicine and Genetics, 11, no. 3.
  • Ekenstedt, K.J., Crosse, K.R. and Risselada, M. (2020)Canine brachycephaly: anatomy, pathology, genetics and welfare. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 176, pp. 109-115.
  • Roedler, F.S., Pohl, S. and Oechtering, G.U. (2013) How does severe brachycephaly affect dog’s lives? Results of a structured preoperative owner questionnaire. The Veterinary Journal, 198 (3), pp. 606-610.
  • Wiles, B.M. et al. (2017) Large-scale survey to estimate the prevalence of disorders for 192 Kennel Club registered breeds. Canine Genetics and Epidemiology, 4, no. 8.
  • Pegram, C. et al (2021) Frequency, breed predisposition and demographic risk factors for overweight status in dogs in the UK. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 62 (7), pp. 521-530.
  • Teng, K.T.Y. et al. (2022) Life tables of annual life expectancy and mortality for companion dogs in the United Kingdom. Scientific Reports, 12, no. 6415.
  • O’Neill, D.G. et al. (2020) Unravelling the health status of brachycephalic dogs in the UK using multivariable analysis. Scientific Reports, 10, no. 17251.
  • O’Neill, D.G. et al. (2016) Demography and health of Pugs under primary veterinary care in England. Canine Genetics and Epidemiology, 3, no. 5.
  • O’Neill, D.G. et al. (2022) Health of Pug dogs in the UK: disorder predispositions and protections. Canine Medicine and Genetics, 9, no. 729.
  • O’Neill, D.G. et al (2018) Demography and disorders of the French Bulldog population under primary veterinary care in the UK in 2013. Canine Genetics and Epidemiology, 5, no. 160.
  • O’Neill, D.G. et al. (2021) French Bulldogs differ to other dogs in the UK in propensity for many common disorders: a VetCompass study. Canine Medicine and Genetics, 8, no. 13.
  • O’Neill, D.G. et al. (2019) Disorders of Bulldogs under primary veterinary care in the UK in 2013. PLoS One, 14 (6), e0217928.
  • Packer, R., Hendricks, A. and Burn, C. (2014) Conference Report: Building Better Brachycephalics 2013. North Mymms: Royal Veterinary College. Available from: [Accessed 2 February 2023]
  • Packer, R.M. and Tivers, M.S. (2015) Strategies for the management and prevention of conformation-related respiratory disorders in brachycephalic dogs. Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports, 6, pp. 219-232.
  • Packer, R. and O’Neill, D. (eds.) (2021) Health and welfare of brachycephalic (flat-faced) companion animals: a complete guide for veterinary and animal professionals. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

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