Quality of Life assessment tools – Arthritis / DJD pain assessment – Dogs

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5.a.i. Dogs

Published 31 August 2021 | Updated 27 October 2023

  • Innes, J.F., Morton, M.A. and Lascelles, B.D.X. (2023) Minimal clinically-important differences for the ‘Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs’ (LOAD) and the ‘Canine Orthopedic Index’ (COI) client-reported outcomes measures. PLOS ONE, 18 (2), no. e0280912. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0280912
  • Alves, J.C. and Innes, J. (2023) Minimal clinically-important differences for the “Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs” (LOAD) and the “Canine Orthopedic Index” (COI) in dogs with osteoarthritis. PLOS ONE, 18 (9): e0291881. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0291881
  • Smith, M., Mendl. M. and Murrell, J.C. (2022) Associations between osteoarthritis and duration and quality of night-time rest in dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 253, p. 105661 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2022.105661
  • Alves, .C. et al. (2022) Evaluation of four clinical metrology instruments for the assessment of osteoarthritis in dogs. Animals, 12 (20), p. 2808. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12202808
  • Radke, H., Joeris, A. and Chen, M. (2022) Evidence‐based evaluation of owner‐reported outcome measures for canine orthopedic care – a COSMIN evaluation of 6 instruments. Veterinary Surgery, 51 (2), pp. 244-253. https://doi.org/10.1111/vsu.13753  
  • Wright, A et al (2022) Identification of canine osteoarthritis using an owner‐reported questionnaire and treatment monitoring using functional mobility tests. Journal of Small Animal Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsap.13500 
  • Roberts, C. et al. (2021) Construction of a conceptual framework for assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life in dogs with osteoarthritis. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 8, p1107. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.741864
  • Hudson, J.T. et al. (2004) Assessing repeatability and validity of a visual analogue scale questionnaire for use in assessing pain and lameness in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 65 (12), pp. 1634-1643. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.2004.65.1634
  • Clark, N. and Comerford, E. (2023) An update on mobility assessment of dogs with musculoskeletal disease. Journal of Small Animal Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsap.13650

Canine Osteoarthritis Staging Tool (COAST)

Helsinki Chronic Pain Index
The Helsinki Chronic Pain Index (HCPI) is a multidimensional pain scale including 11 questions which can be used by veterinary professionals and owners.

  • Hielm-Björkman, A.K., Rita, H. and Tulamo, R.M. (2009) Psychometric testing of the Helsinki chronic pain index by completion of a questionnaire in Finnish by owners of dogs with chronic signs of pain caused by osteoarthritis. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 70 (6), pp. 727-734. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.70.6.727
  • Hielm-Björkman, A.K., Kapatkin, A.S. and Rita, H.J. (2011) Reliability and validity of a visual analogue scale used by owners to measure chronic pain attributable to osteoarthritis in their dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 72 (5), pp. 601-607. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.72.5.601

Canine Brief Pain Inventory
The Canine Brief Pain Inventory is an owner completed questionnaire that measures the severity and impact of chronic pain in dogs.

Liverpool osteoarthritis in Dogs (LOAD)
The Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs (LOAD) questionnaire is a13-item clinical metrology instrument (CMI) used to assess canine articular disorders like osteoarthritis. Individual question scores are summed to provide an overall “LOAD score” suggestive of the animal’s disease presence and severity.

Canine Orthopaedic Index
The Canine Orthopaedic Index is a psychometrically sound owner completed instrument that can assess 4 domains in dogs with osteoarthritis: stiffness, gait, function, and quality of life.

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