Cannabidiol: Cannabinoid receptors and pharmacokinetics

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3. Cannabinoid receptors and pharmacokinetics

Published 23 April 2023 | Updated 16 May 2024

In order to understand whether, and how, cannabinoids may exert an effect we need to understand the types and distribution of cannabinoid receptors and the way in which different formulation of cannabidiol are absorbed and distributed. Evidence in this area is very limited for veterinary species and as the first paper, a systematic review on the pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in humans, shows there is still a paucity of data in humans.

  • Schwark, W.S. and Wakshlag, J.J. (2023) A One Health perspective on comparative cannabidiol and cannabidiolic acid pharmacokinetics and biotransformation in humans and domestic animals. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 84 (5),
  • Millar, S.A. et al. (2018) A systematic review on the pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in humans. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9.
  • Silver, R.J. (2019) The endocannabinoid system of animals. Animals, 9 (9), no. 686.
  • Freundt-Revilla, J. et al. (2017) Spatial distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in normal canine central and peripheral nervous system. PLoS ONE, 12 (7), no. e0181064.
  • Sánchez-Aparicio, P. et al. (2020) Cannabinoids CB2 receptors, one new promising drug target for chronic and degenerative pain conditions in equine veterinary patients. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 85, no. 102880.
  • Cunha, R.Z. et al. (2023) Expression of cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) and cannabinoid-related receptors (TRPV1, GPR55 and PPARα) in the synovial membrane of the horse metacarpophalangeal joint. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 10.

Pharmacokinetics in horses

Updated 16 May 2024

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