Quality of Life assessment tools – Pain assessment tools – Horses

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4.b.iv. Horses

Published 31 August 2021 | updated 14 February 2024

  • Howard, D.L., Lancaster, B. and de Grauw, J. (2024) Development and preliminary validation of an equine brief pain inventory for owner assessment of chronic pain due to osteoarthritis in horses. Animals, 14 (2), no. 181. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14020181 
  • Jodzio, D. et al. (2023) Pain scoring systems in hospitalized horses with ocular disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.16933
  • Ask, K. et al. (2022) Performance of four equine pain scales and their association to movement asymmetry in horses with induced orthopedic pain. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 9, 938022. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2022.938022
  • Gómez Álvarez, C.B. and Oosterlinck, M. (2023) The ongoing quest for a validated, universally accepted visual lameness grading scale. Equine Veterinary Journal, 55 (1) pp. 5-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/evj.13896
  • Ladewig, J. et al. (2022) A review of the ridden horse pain ethogram and its potential to improve ridden horse welfare. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 54, pp, 54-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2022.07.003
  • Ortolani, F. et al (2021) Development and preliminary validation of a pain scale for ophthalmic pain in horses: The Equine Ophthalmic Pain Scale (EOPS). The Veterinary Journal, 278, p. 105774. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2021.105774
  • Gleerup, K.B. and Lindegaard, C. (2016) Recognition and quantification of pain in horses: A tutorial review. Equine Veterinary Education, 28 (1), pp. 47-57. https://doi.org/10.1111/eve.12383
  • Agne, G.F. et al. (2023) Horse Grimace Scale does not detect pain in horses with equine gastric ulcer syndrome. Animals, 13 (10), no. 1623. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13101623
  • Dalla Costa, E. et al (2014) Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a pain assessment tool in horses undergoing routine castration. PLoS ONE, 9 (3), p. e92281. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092281
  • van Loon, J.P. and Van Dierendonck, M.C. (2015) Monitoring acute equine visceral pain with the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP): a scale-construction study. The Veterinary Journal, 206 (3), pp. 356-364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.08.023
  • Ladewig, J. et al. (2022) A review of The Ridden Horse pain Ethogram and its potential to improve ridden horse welfare. Journal of Veterinary Behaviour, 54, pp. 54-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2022.07.003
  • Dyson, S. et al (2018) Development of an ethogram for a pain scoring system in ridden horses and its application to determine the presence of musculoskeletal pain. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 23, pp. 47-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2017.10.008
  • Dyson, S. and Van Dijk, J. (2020) Application of a ridden horse ethogram to video recordings of 21 horses before and after diagnostic analgesia: reduction in behaviour scores. Equine Veterinary Education, 32, pp. 104-111. https://doi.org/10.1111/eve.13029
  • Lanci, A. et al (2022) Development of a composite pain scale in foals: a pilot study. Animals. 12 (4), 439. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12040439
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